Pinguicula primuliflora

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Family : Lentibulariaceae

Genus : Pinguicula

Name : Pinguicula primuliflora

Sub-classification (Casper) : link

Publication : by Wood and Godfrey in Rhodora 59 (1957) 219



Perennis. Rhizoma simplex breve, radicibus adventitiis filiformibus numerosis. Folia 8-16 radicalia rosulata circuitu +/- oblonga basi spathulata apice rotundata integerrima margine paulum involuta in statu adulto plana superne glanduloso-viscosa glandulis sessilibus dense et glandulis stipitatis modice dense vestita (25) 40 – 80 (90) mm longa (5) 10 – 20 (25) mm lata laete virentia. Hibernacula nulla. Pedicelli (1) 2 – 4 (6) erecti crassiusculi glandulis stipitatis sparse obtecti (80) 90 – 170 (280) mm alti uniflori. Flores sat magni (15) 17 – 24 (26) mm longi (calcari incluso). Calyx bilabiatus acriter viridis extus glandulis stipitatis disperse vestitus; labium superum usque ad basin fere trilobum lobis late ovato-oblongis apice rotundatis +/- 4 – 6 mm longis 2 – 3 mm latis; labium infrum bilobum lobis semicoalitis late ovato-triangulis apice rotundatis +/- 3 mm longis. Corolla subisoloba violaceo-caerulea in fauce flavo-maculata lobis obovatis vel suborbicularibus aeque longis ac latis (8) 10 – 13 mm longis 10 – 14 mm latis apice emarginatis crenis 2 – 3 mm profundis inter se tegentibus. Tubus subcylindricus paulum compressus flavus venis brunneis 4 – 6 (8) mm longus 3 – 5 mm latus (in sicco) intus pilosus pilis pluricellulate stipitatis clavato-capitatis flavis cum palato et cymatio palati. Palatum conico-aciculare conspicuum 4 – 6 mm longum ex tubo 3 – 5 mm exsertum antico pilis pluricellulatis clavate capitatis flavis dense vestitum postico pilis crassis pyriformiter capitatis rubro-flavis vestitum abrupte contractum in calcar. Calcar subcylindricum flavum vel flavum venis brunneis extus sparse glandulis stipitatis vestitum (2) 3 – 4 (5) mm longum cum tubo angulum obtusum (135° - 150°) formans. Stamina +/- 2 mm longa; antherae flavae; filamenta albida; pollen (4) 5 – 6 (7) – colporatum. Ovarium subglobosum glandulis stipitatis nonnullis obtectum. Stigma bilabiatum album labio infero maximo antheres tegente. Capsula depressoglobosa 5 mm diametro calycem non superans. Semina scobiformia numerosa subcylindrica truncata brunnea 0.5 – 0.7 mm longa. 

Chromosomata 2 n = 32 


Floret II – IV

 Translation :

Perennial herb. The leaves are in basal rosettes that are 4-16 cm broad. The leaves are bright green, oblong, rounded at the tip, 6-9 cm long, 2.0-2.5 cm wide, and covered with short, knob-tipped (sticky and glandular) hairs. The flowers are solitary on leafless stalks (scapes) that become 8-15 cm tall, and have scattered, short, knob-tipped hairs. The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with the calyx 2-lipped, the upper lip with three distinct lobes and the lower lip with two smaller lobes (see persistent calyx around fruit in illustration). The corolla consists of an expanded portion that is 2.5-3.0 cm wide with five nearly equal lobes that are obovate to nearly round, 8-13 mm long, 10-14 mm wide, and shallowly notched; a narrow tube that is 4-5 mm long; and a narrow, basal, downward extension or spur that is 3-5 mm long. The corolla tube and spur are lemon yellow with prominent brownish-violet veins; the ground color of the expanded portion of the corolla varies from deep to pale bluish-violet with darker veins, with a ring of white at the throat and a mass of yellowish, sometimes reddish-tipped, club-shaped hairs at the center. Some of these hairs, besides occurring along the inner throat, are found on an appendage (palate) that projects obliquely some 3-5 mm from the lower, inner surface of the corolla tube. The two stamens are white; the single ovary has a white style with two unequal lobes. The fruit is a rounded capsule, 5 mm in diameter, with numerous seeds. The seeds are brown, small (0.5-0.7 mm long), somewhat broadened at one end, and honeycomb-surfaced.


Flowering period (wild)

: late March to May, occasionally later;

Fruiting period (wild)

: June to July.



Localisation / Map: 

Coastal Plain of southern Mississippi to extreme southwestern Georgia and the Florida Panhandle; somewhat disjunct in the Fall Line Sandhills of westcentral Georgia.

(click on the map for better location and relief map)


This map is from Serge Lavayssiere.


Pinguicula primuliflora can be found in very wet habitats along streams, small ponds...but also in drier habitat often flooded. These plants are then, smaller.


All carnivorous plants are threaten by drainage of site, degradation of water quality and all human activities.

Introduction in culture :

One of the carnivorous plants that entered the mass market and can be found nearly in all garden center thanks to the Dutch nurseries.


(North hemisphere, France near Paris, in a garden  - see the map -)    

Life cycle : This species, native from Southeastern USA, stay all the time under rosette form. During the spring and summer. They rise beautiful violet flowers on a very sticky bloom stalk. These plants require a dormancy each winter but temperatures are cool. During this time, the plant will remain green, but will slow down growth substantially. The plants doesn’t have cold winter. With the rise of spring temperatures, the plants will begin a new growth cycle.

Media: The plants grow in a mix of 1/2 peat and 1/2 non calcareous sand but many others seems to work also : 100% live sphagnum, 50/50 peat/perlite, peat mixed with sphagnum moss…

Pot : Pinguicula primuliflora can be grown using the tray method so all kind of pots can be use. I grow mine in a large plastic pot.


Cultivation :  Pinguicula primuliflora is a warm-temperate species. The temperatures ranges from 10° to 30° C. I have noted that this species can stay alive with cold temperature even under 0°C but the plant is reduced to a green heart and need a long time to regrow in spring in comparatively to plants kept around 8 - 10°C in winter.

The plants in greenhouse can suffer hot summer temperatures around 35°C without any problems.

The soil should be kept moist as this species seems to love high humidity. The plant can tolerate flooded conditions for short periods of time as in its habitat.

A good aeration is especially necessary for Pinguicula primuliflora to avoid the prone rotting of the plants.

The light should be indirect or filtered and you should avoid the direct sun exposure, in its habitat can be found in shaded area.  


Here are the growing tips of Bob McMorris, one of the best grower I know for these species (personnal communication with Bob on September 29th 2001) :

"I would suggest 50% peat, 50% sand for P. lutea, P. caerulea and P. pumila (actually P. pumila occurs all the way south into the Florida Keys and the Bahamas, where they grow in pockets of limestone with perharps a bit of sand and decomposed plant matter; so I suspect this species can grow with a bit of vermiculite and less peat. The last three species); P. planifolia, P. primuliflora, and P. ionantha generally grow in very wet areas, with P. primuliflora having been recorded as growing under water along the edges of streams. 

I grow these species with a base of peat and then the upper layer of live Sphagnum. The seeds should be started on peat and then when large enough (perhaps the second season) moved into Sphagnum. The first 3 (P. lutea, P. caerulea and P. pumila) are usually found along side the road in low grasses where they get quite a lot of sun. The ground is usually damp not wet. The latter 3 (P. planifolia, P. primuliflora, and P. ionantha) are usually found in much wetter locations, but still receiving quite a lot of sun. I have grown them on the tray system under lights with success, however they do much better outdoors with full sun."   


Multiplication : The plant is easily multiplicated by the numerous plantlets formed on the leaf tips. Just let the plantlets form their own roots. Some plants in culture forms also seeds but I only get once some seeds with my clone coming from the Dutch mass production.  

 PICTURES: (click to enlarge)


Here is a picture of an amazing habit of Pinguicula primuliflora that produce budding plantlets from the tip of the leaf. When the old leav will decay, the plantlet will have enought roots to grow itself.

Photo : Serge Lavayssiere


A cluster of Pinguicula primuliflora in culture. This species flowers for a long weeks.

Photo : Serge Lavayssiere


Close-up of the flower of Pinguicula primuliflora. Note the hairy and exserted yellow palate.

Photo : William Dawnstar

Pinguicula primuliflora : The name of the plant comes from its similarity in flower shape with the flower of the Primula.



Close-up of the flower of Pinguicula primuliflora. The flower is pale purple but flowers darker are not rare.


Photo : Serge Lavayssiere


Close-up of the flower of Pinguicula primuliflora. Note the bright yellow color of the tube and spur.


Photo : Serge Lavayssiere

Front close-up of the flower of Pinguicula primuliflora. Note the hairy and exserted yellow palate.

Photo : Serge Lavayssiere

Close-up of the flower of Pinguicula primuliflora. Note the bright yellow color of the tube and spur.

Photo : William Dawnstar

Pinguicula primuliflora, herbarium type specimen from Missouri Botanical Garden.

This image in its original context, on the page :

Insect trapped on the glandular scape of Pinguicula primuliflora.


Photo : Markus Welge

This picture came from his website, a must to visit.

Emerging flower on Pinguicula primuliflora.

Photo : Markus Welge

This picture came from his website, a must to visit.

Emerging flower on Pinguicula primuliflora.

Photo : Markus Welge

This picture came from his website, a must to visit.


A pale purple flower...

Photo : Naoki Tanabe

and a pink flower. Note also the variation in the corolla lobes. 

Photo : William Dawnstar

A narrow form.

Photo : Naoki Tanabe


An amazing double (or more) flower on a single scape. This plant is propagated in japan and can be found under the name Pinguicula primuliflora 'rose'.


Photo : Naoki Tanabe

Pinguicula primuliflora, white flower form.

Photo : Markus Welge

This picture came from his website, a must to visit.

Even in the white flower form, some pink shade are seen.

Photo : Markus Welge

This picture came from his website, a must to visit.

In Wild...

 - soon : pictures in wild by Bob Mc Morris and Oliver Gluch -